You are allowed to sell items not directly created or authorized by an artist on Artsy, however, you must clearly communicate this by using an artist attribution qualifier (e.g. “In the style of Andy Warhol”). Similarly, if there is any question as to the creator of a work, use a qualifier to express this (e.g. “Attributed to Rembrandt”).
As cataloging traditional standards can be confusing to collectors new to the market, Artsy’s guidelines on attribution modifiers are purposefully simplified. The most common modifiers you will use are “After”, “In the style of”, and “Attributed to.” For other more nuanced cases, please follow our style guidelines below.
After — A copy by an unknown artist of a unique work by a known artist. For ephemera and contemporary art merchandise and ephemera, do not use "After" or other artist qualifiers. Instead, attribute the work directly to the known artist and select the appropriate artwork classification and medium type.
Assistant to — Use "Workshop of"
Associate of — Use when an association between the unknown artist and known artist is explicitly understood as an association. Note: This term should generally not be used as a qualifier; use other terms in this list to describe more distinctly the relationship between a work and an unknown artist, if possible.
Atelier — Use "Studio of"
Attributed to — Use to express uncertainty when the attribution of a work to a known artist is in question.
Circle of — A work by an as yet unidentified but distinct hand closely associated with the named artist but not necessarily their pupil. The term is nearly synonymous with "School of" but can imply a broader, less formal association.
Copyist of — Use "After"
Follower of — Use for an unknown artist who works in a known artist's style but who is not closely associated with them and who may not actually be contemporary with them.
Manner of — Use "Style of"
Pupil of — Indicates authorship by an unknown artist working directly for the known artist, probably under their supervision. The term implies a closer association with the known artist than the more collaborative "Workshop of" or "Studio of," describing an individual whose work is readily identifiable but whose name has not been recorded.
School of — Use for an unknown artist who is closely associated with a known artist and who works in the known artist's style but who is not necessarily their pupil.
Student of — Use "Pupil of"
Studio of — Refers to a system common in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries when known "master" artists took on pupils rather than apprentices. Note: The distinction between "studio of" and "workshop of" depends on the historical period in question and the type of art being produced.
Style of — Indicates the influence of the style of the known artist, but carries the connotation that the known artist had little or nothing to do with the actual work at hand.
Workshop of — Indicates authorship by an unknown artist working directly for the known artist, probably under their supervision. Used for groups of artists working under a "master" artist's name, generally in a system of apprenticeship common from ancient times to the nineteenth century.
Note: The distinction between "workshop of" and "studio of" depends on the historical period in question and the type of art being produced.
X to Signify by (ex: KAWS x [email protected]) — Indicates that an item, typically contemporary art merchandise, was made in collaboration between an artist studio and a manufacturer. Listings using this qualifier should be listed as editioned or non-editioned multiples, never as limited edition. Note: not all collaborations use the X qualifier. If you are unsure, attribute the work directly to the artist, list the manufacturer in the manufacturer field, and select the appropriate artwork classification type (limited edition, open edition, or unknown edition ) and medium type (Ephemera or Merchandise).